Hong Kong's youth press campaign despite
China's rejection of full democracy
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[June 26, 2017]
By James Pomfret and Benjamin Kang Lim
HONG KONG/BEIJING (Reuters) - When the
British handed over Hong Kong to China in 1997, Beijing promised to
allow universal suffrage as an "ultimate aim", along with other
freedoms, under a "one country, two systems" arrangement agreed with
That's not going to happen, well placed sources in Beijing and Hong Kong
say, as Hong Kong marks the 20th anniversary of that handover.
China did offer a contentious electoral reform package in 2014, which
allowed Hong Kong a direct vote, but only of candidates pre-screened by
Beijing. The city's pro-democracy lawmakers vetoed the package, which
critics called "fake democracy". And so Hong Kong's next leader was
again chosen this year by a small electoral college stacked with
"There will be no second chance," said a source in Beijing with ties to
the Chinese leadership, who declined to be named given the sensitivity
of the matter. "We can't afford to do it all over again. It's too
painful and a waste of time and resources."
A senior Hong Kong official said even if China changed its mind, Beijing
wouldn't back down on its requirement that candidates be vetted,
effectively shutting out pro-democracy contenders for the top job.
"A (democratically-elected) chief executive who does not get along with
the central (government) will be a disaster for Hong Kong," said the
source with ties to the Chinese leadership. "It would lead to gridlock
... Hong Kong people will suffer."
The Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office of China's State Council did not
respond to faxed questions. But Chinese authorities have long stated
they respect Hong Kong's "high degree of autonomy" and are supportive of
lawful and gradual democratic development until universal suffrage is
In comments reported by state media on Monday, Chinese President Xi
Jinping said "one country, two systems" remained the best way to ensure
Hong Kong's long-term prosperity and stability and vowed to stand by it
The battle for full democracy in Hong Kong has been a defining issue for
the city of 7.3 million. It has sown distrust between China and Hong
Kong, polarized politics, hampered governance and stoked mass street
protests, including the 79-day pro-democracy Occupy movement of 2014
that tried but failed to wrest democratic concessions from Hong Kong and
In the process, a young generation has become radicalized, with some
agitating for greater autonomy and even independence from China.
Authorities have tried to snuff that out.
In March, Hong Kong police arrested nine activists including a few
leaders of the Occupy movement. That came after two pro-independence,
democratically elected legislators were kicked out of Hong Kong's
assembly late last year.
Beijing's harder line on Hong Kong has been mirrored on the mainland
with Xi's crackdown on dissent since coming to power five years ago.
Hong Kong's democratic experiment is seen as a litmus test of Beijing's
tolerance for eventual political reforms in mainland China, where calls
for greater civil liberties and grassroots democracy have been growing,
Britain acquired Hong Kong island in 1842 after the first of two "opium"
wars during the height of its imperial power and returned it 156 years
later to a rising China. Colonial Hong Kong's governor was appointed and
Britain did little to promote democracy until near the end of its rule.
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Pro-democracy student leader Joshua Wong, 20, poses near his home in
Hong Kong, China March 31, 2017. REUTERS/Bobby Yip/File Photo
The pro-democracy movement has lost considerable steam following the
crackdown on activists, as well as infighting between various
But the movement has recently stepped up its longstanding
international engagement, particularly with Washington.
Last month, Joshua Wong, a skinny, 20-year-old who helped lead the
Occupy protests, and veteran democrat Martin Lee told the U.S.
Congressional-Executive Commission on China the "high degree of
autonomy" promised to Hong Kong had eroded over two decades of
U.S. Republican Senator Marco Rubio is pushing a "Hong Kong Human
Rights and Democracy Act", a bipartisan bill to punish Chinese
officials who suppress basic freedoms in Hong Kong.
The campaign by Wong, who was featured in a recent Netflix
documentary, also took him to Taiwan in recent weeks, where 18
pro-independence lawmakers launched a new congressional caucus on
Hong Kong, modeled in part on the U.S. initiative. He also traveled
to Japan for a lobbying trip this month.
"I'm really optimistic that in the future, we can take this as a
reference and just get bipartisan support around the world," said
Wong, who is facing a possible five-year jail term on "unlawful
PROTESTS AHEAD OF XI VISIT
Just days before Xi visits for the 20th anniversary of the handover
on July 1, Wong and around a dozen activists, all dressed in black,
covered a statue of a golden Bauhinia flower considered a symbol of
Chinese sovereignty, in black cloth to symbolize what they called
the brutality of the Chinese regime.
"One country, two systems a lie for 20 years," Wong and his fellow
activists shouted, pumping fists.
Tens of thousands of others are expected to attend various protests
when Xi is in town including a July 1 rally with the theme "retake
Hong Kong for a democratic government".
"It's time to let Hong Kong people have democracy and universal
suffrage," said Wong.
Martin Lee, the 79-year-old barrister widely known as one of the
fathers of the democratic movement in Hong Kong said Beijing is
trying to "extinguish the fire of democracy that is burning in the
hearts of young people".
"But if I were to die today, Hong Kong would be fine with young
leaders like that."
(Additional reporting by Venus Wu in Hong Kong; Jessica Macy Yu in
Taiwan and Elaine Lies in Tokyo; Editing by Bill Tarrant)
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